A nutritional assessment of needs is a vital element of INDIVIDUAL care planning-here are some notes from our nutrition module


 Nutritional Care Planning

General aims:

  •  Promoting health should always be the basis of any service provision
  •  Improvements to the fitness of a client



n  In general the amount of energy needed to be consumed reduces as a person gets older

 

n  This is a variable factor dependant on how physically active a client is

 

n  Non variable factors are the requirements for protein, vitamins and minerals V these requirements do not change as a person gets older

 

n  Meal sizes should not be affected by these non variable factors

 
















Obesity greatly increases the risk of:

 

n  Diabetes

 

n  Joint disorders

 

n  Breathing difficulties

 

n  It also has an obvious affect on mobility

 











 




 Fats

There should be no restriction on the input of fats if a client:

 Has suffered weight loss
 Has a very small appetite
 Is very feeble/weak  

Fibre V Cereals, Fruit & Vegetables         
 Important V overly large amounts of high fibre foods and raw bran can hinder nutritional absorption



Constipation/Bowel Problems

 

n  Cereals, fruit and vegetables

n  Eating these food types as part of a healthy balanced diet will help clients who have bowel or constipation problems

 






                                                                     

Anaemia
Iron
 Maintaining iron intakes can combat anaemia
 There are a number of other reasons why clients may be anaemic - poor nutrient absorption, the side effects of certain drugs etc

 

Iron

n  Daily sources of iron should be from red meat and non-meat sources

n  Non-meat sources include pulses, green leafy vegetables, fortified cereals and dried fruit


 

Pressure Ulcers

 

Zinc

 

n  The intake of Zinc is vital for the maintenance of a healthy immune system and the bodys natural ability to heal wounds

 

Food sources rich in Zinc include:

 

Meat

Pulses

Wholemeal bread
Shellfish 










 

Osteoporosis

 The loss of calcium in bones increases considerably during the ageing process
 Consuming calcium rich products on a daily basis can help to slow down this process

 Water
 There is no requirement to drink lots of water if a correctly managed diet is being maintained
 A well-balanced diet will contain enough water (from foods and normal drinks)
 Water constitutes 80-90% of fruit and vegetables
 The amount of fluid each person actually requires is individual and will be based on their height and weight
 An approximate guide is around 2 litres per day

 
 

n  Taking in an appropriate amount of water each day will:

n  Aid digestion

n  Maintain effective urine flow

n  Stop dehydration

n  Keep hair and skin healthy

n  Maintain correct kidney function

 







 




Vitamin C

 Food and drink rich in Vitamin C will aid nutrient absorption
 Providing fresh fruit/fresh vegetables or a glass of fruit juice at each meal will maintain levels of Vitamin C


Vitamin D

 Vitamin D is naturally produced when the body is exposed to sunlight
 This important vitamin is required for healthy bones
 Clients in a care setting can be limited in the amount of sunlight they are exposed to
 The GP should be consulted before any supplements are considered

Obesity

 Foods high in sugar and fat should ideally be reduced
 Other food types (e.g. bread, cereals, fruits and vegetables) should ideally be increased
 Achieving a healthy balance will help achieve safe weight loss whilst ensuring that adequate nutrients are being ingested

 



References:

Keep fit for Life: Meeting the Nutritional Needs of Older Persons (World Health Organisation) 2002

Weil, A. (2007) - Healthy Aging: A Lifelong Guide to Your Well-Being. Anchor Books. Peterborough

 

 

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